The absence of Menstruation
Total absence of ovulation.Note: This is not necessarily the same as “amenorrhea”. Menses my still occur with anovulation
The application of light suction to the ovarian follicle to remove eggs.
The absence of sperm in the ejaculate.
The alteration of sperm during their passage through the female reproductive tract that gives them the capacity to penetrate and fertilize the ovum
The lower section of the uterus which protrudes into the vagina and dilates during labor to allow the passage of the infant.
Microscopic hair-like projections from the surface of a cell capable of beating in a coordinated fashion.
The fertilization of a woman’s egg by a man’s sperm resulting in a new life.
A special gland that forms on the surface of the ovary at the site of ovulation and produces progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle. It is necessary to prepare the uterine lining for implantation by the fertilized egg.
A procedure used to preserve(by freezing) and store embryos or gametes(sperm, oocytes).
A pregnancy in which the fertilized egg implants anywhere but in the uterine cavity(usually in the fallopian tube, the ovary or the abdominal cavity).
Surgical removal of an egg from one woman for transfer into the fallopian tube or uterus of another woman.
The term used to describe the early stages of fetal growth, from conception to the eighth week of pregnancy.
Introduction of an embryo into a woman’s uterus after in vitro (or in vivo) fertilization.
System of glands including the thymus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, testicles or ovaries.
The mucous membrane lining the uterus
An elongated organ in the male lying above and behind the testicles. It contains a highly convoluted canal, four to six meters in length, where, after production, sperm are stored, nourished and ripened for a period of several months.
A hormone released by developing follicles in the ovary. Plasma estradiol levels are used to help determine progressive growth of the follicle during ovulation induction.
A class of female hormones, produced mainly by the overies from the onset of puberty and continuing until menopause and which are responsible for the development of secondary sexual characteristics.
A pair of narrow tubes that carry the ovum(egg) from the ovary to the body of the uterus.
The penetration of the egg by the sperm and fusion of genetic materials to result in the development of an embryo.
The developing baby from the ninth week of pregnancy until the moment of birth.
The fringed and finger-like outer ends of the Fallopian tubes.
The fluid-filled sac in ovary that has nurtured the ripening egg and from which the egg is released during ovulation.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
A hormone produced and released from the pituitary that stimulates the ovary to ripen a follicle for ovulation.
The male or female reproductive cells the sperm or the ovum(egg).
Gamete Intra-fallopian Transfer (GIFT)
Procedure where the egg is removed via laparoscopy and immediately mixed with washed sperm, usually from the husband. This sperm-egg mixture is the transferred by laparoscopy may then taken place.
A hormone capable of stimulating the testicles or the ovaries to produce sperm or an egg, respectively.
A chemical, produced by an endocrine gland, which circulates in the blood and has widespread action throughout the body.
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
A hormone secreted by the placenta during pregnancy that prolongs the life of the corpus luteum, progesterone production and thus preserves the pregnancy. This hormone accounts for pregnancy tests being positive. It may also be administered therapeutically in cryptorchidism.
The embedding of the fertilized egg in the endomentrium of the uterus.
The inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular unprotected sexual relations, or the inability of the woman to carry a pregnancy to live birth.
The installation of semen into a woman’s vagina for the purpose of conception.
In Vitro Fertiliztion-Embryo Transfer (IVF-ET)
A procedure in which an egg is removed from a ripe follicle and fertilized by a sperm call outside the human body. The fertilized egg is allowed to divide in a protected environment for about two days and then is inserted back into the uterus of the woman who produced the egg. Also called “test tube baby” and “test tube fertilization”
The direct visualization of the ovaries and the exterior of the fallopian tubes and uterus by means of inserting a surgical instrument through a small incision below the naval.
A hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary throughout the menstrual cycle. Secretion of LH increases in the middle of the cycle to induce release of the egg.
Morphology of Sperm
The study of the shape of sperm cells. This evaluation is part of a semen analysis.
Motility of Sperm
The ability of the sperm to move about.
An abnormally low number of sperm in the ejaculate of the male.
A surgical procedure, usually under general anesthesia, to collect the eggs contained within the ovarian follicles. A needle is inserted into the follicle, the fluid and egg are aspirated into the needle, and then placed into a culture medium-filled dish.
The plasma membrane of the oocyte.
The inability of the ovary to respond to any gonadotropic hormone stimulation, usually due to the absence of follicular tissue on a genetic basis or the postmenopausal condition(absence of oocytes).
The sexual gland of the female which produces the hormones estrogen and progesterone, and in which the ova are developed. There are to ovaries, one on each side of the pelvis, and they are connected to the uterus by the fallopian tubes.
The release of a mature egg from the surface of the ovary.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCO)
Development of multiple cysts in the ovaries due to arrested follicular growth. There is an imbalance in the amount of LH and FSH released during the ovulatory cycle.
Fertilization of the egg by more than one sperm.
A hormone secreted by the corpus luteum of the ovary after ovulation has occurred. Also produced by the placenta during pregnancy.
The sperm and seminal secretions ejaculated during orgasm.
The study of fresh ejaculate under the microscope to count the number of million sperm per milliliter or cubic centimeter, to check the shape and size of the sperm, and to note their ability to move(motility).
The male reproductive cell that has measurable characteristics such as:
Mobility, refers to percent of sperm demonstrating any type of movement count.
Density, refers to the number of sperm present.
Morphology, refers to form or shape of the sperm.
Viability, refers to whether or not the sperm are alive.
A technique that separates the sperm from the seminal fluid.
Surrogate Gestational Carrier
A woman who gestates an embryo which is not genetically related to her, and then turns over the child to its genetic parents.
The male sexual glands of which there are two. Contained in the scrotum, they produce the male hormone testosterone and produce the male reproductive cells, the sperm.
The most potent male sex hormone, produced in the testicles.
Unobstructed Fallopian tubes.
A technique for visualizing the follicles in the ovaries and the fetus in the uterus, allowing the estimation of size.
The reproductive organ that houses, protects and nourishes the developing embryo/fetus. It of a hollow, muscular structure that is part of the female reproductive tract and is the source of a woman’s menses.
A tubular passageway in the female connecting the external sex organs with the cervix and uterus.
A varicose vein of the testicles, sometimes a cause of male infertility.
A pair of thick walled tubes about 45 cm long in the male that lead from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct in the prostate. During ejaculation, the ducts make wave-like contractions to propel sperm forward.
The outer covering of the ovum that the sperm must penetrate before fertilization can occur.
An embryo in early development state.
Zygote Intra-Fallopian Transfer(ZIFT)
Transfer of a zygote into a fallopian tube(usually done by laparoscopy).